The Central Bank of Burundi was established under the name of "Bank of the Kingdom of Burundi " by the law of April 9, 1964 after the split caused by the Rwandan authorities of the time, the Bank of Issue of Rwanda and Burundi ( BERB ) , common to both countries central bank since August 4, 1960. Before that date , the role of the Institut d'Emission was provided first by the Bank of Belgian Congo (BCB) , 1916 to 1952 , then by the Central Bank of the Belgian Congo and Rwanda -Urundi (BCCBRU).

Bank of the Kingdom of Burundi began operations on May 19, 1964 , after the liquidation of the BERB.

However, the Act of April 9, 1964 was the mark of the circumstances in which it was drafted and passed. The country was in effect before the urgent need to establish a national bank responsible for ensuring seamless monetary functions assigned to the common stock being liquidated. As this law was she quickly repealed and replaced by the Act of 21 January 1965 approving the Statute of the Bank of the Kingdom of Burundi.

Following the proclamation of the Republic November 28, 1966, the official name of the Bank became "Bank of the Republic of Burundi ," the initials " BRB " Remains unchanged ( Decree-Law No. 1/ 60 of 28 April 1967 amending the Law of 21 January 1965 ) .

In anticipation of the enactment of the Banking Act ( Act No. 1/ 2 of January 3, 1976 ), he was made ​​an update of the Articles of BRB to bring them into line with the new legislation ( Law No. 1/1 from 3 January 1976 amending the Law of 21 January 1965 ) .

Finally, the challenges of banking deregulation and financial innovation and liberalization of exchange, it became imperative to revise certain provisions of Law No. 1/1 from 3 January 1976 to establish the Institute of emission structures that enable it to fulfill its mission. It is in this context that the Law No. 1/036 of 7 July 1993 was enacted and remains in force to this day.